England - More Information


England can be divided into The Highland and Lowlands zones. The highland zone is characterised by rocky, rugged hills and eroded mountain faces, interrupted by valleys and extensive plains. Because these higher lying areas get less sunlight during the day and more rainfall than the lower lying areas, they are generally colder and unsuitable for farming.

The Pennine Mountain Range, Cumbrian Mountains and the mountains of the Lake District are included in the Highland Zone. Some of these mountains peak at an impressive 3000 feet (or 914 metres) above sea level. Devon and Cornwall are situated on a peninsula that is part of the Highland Zone and is particularly rugged and bare.

The lowland zone experiences less rain and more sunshine than the high-lying regions. The soil is more fertile, yielding far better crops. The landscape boasts rolling hills that are not very high, making for the ideal place to live and farm. For this reason, most English inhabitants can be found in the Lowland Zone. The Lowlands include the Cotswold Hills, Chiltern Hills, North Downs and South Downs.

England makes extensive use of its inland waterways, such as its rivers. The Thames River, Mersey River and Tyne River are particularly important as they have formal ports in London, Liverpool and Newcastle respectively. When the tide is high, ships can travel along these rivers and into the ports. The Thames River is also the country's longest at 346 kilometres in length.

The Pennines Mountain Range is the oldest of its kind in England, being dated at 300 million years of age. This mountain range measures approximately 400 kilometres or 250 miles in length. The whole area of the Pennines is diverse, boasting valleys, rivers and stark cliff faces as part of its topography. The highest peak in all of England is Scafell Pike (Cumbria), at an amazing 3209 feet or 978 metres above sea level.


The islands that are today the United Kingdom were invaded by the Romans in 55 BC. This brought the local islanders into contact with the rest of Europe. After the Roman Empire weakened, the islands were invaded by the Saxons, the Vikings, and finally the Normans.

The English conquered Wales in 1282 under Edward I. In order to make the Welsh happy, the king's son was made the Prince of Wales. The two countries became unified in 1536. Scotland became part of the British crown in 1602 when the king of Scotland became the King James I of England. The union became official in 1707. Ireland became a part of the union in 1801. However, many of the Irish rebelled and, in 1921, the southern part of Ireland was made a separate country and an Irish free state.

In the 1500s Britain began to expand its empire into much of the world. After defeating the Spanish Armada in 1588, England became the world's dominant sea power. Britain first grew into the Far East and India and then to the Americas. In the early 1800s the UK defeated France in the Napoleonic Wars and became the supreme European power.

In the 1900s, the United Kingdom became less of a dominant world power. It continued to lose control over colonies and was weakened by World War I. However, under the leadership of Winston Churchill, the United Kingdom was the last western European nation to oppose Germany in World War II and played a major role in defeating Hitler.

The United Kingdom played a major role in the history of the world, taking a leading role in developing democracy and in advancing literature and science. At its peak in the 19th century, the British Empire covered over one-fourth of the surface of the earth.


England's climate is described as being temperate maritime. Winter temperatures seldom plummet below zero degrees Celsius, while summer highs can reach about 30 degrees Celsius. January and February are coldest and usually experience snowfall, while July is the hottest month. England is a relatively wet country due to its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean. This, in turn, has created a lush land of greenery and blooms.

Wildlife and Nature

The fauna of England is similar to that of other areas in the British Isles with a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate life in a diverse range of habitats.

England has a temperate oceanic climate in most areas, lacking extremes of cold or heat, but does have a few small areas of subarctic and warmer areas in the South West. Towards the North of England the climate becomes colder and most of England's mountains and high hills are located here and have a major impact on the climate and thus the local fauna of the areas. Deciduous woodlands are common across all of England and provide a great habitat for much of England's wildlife, but these give way in northern and upland areas of England to coniferous forests (mainly plantations) which also benefit certain forms of wildlife.

Grey squirrels introduced from eastern America have forced the decline of the native red squirrel due to competition. Red squirrels are now confined to upland and coniferous-forested areas of England, mainly in the north, south west and Isle of Wight. England's climate is very suitable for lagomorphs and the country has rabbits and brown hares which were introduced in Roman times. 

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